New transistor that can be converted between p-type and n-type
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Currently, most electronic devices contain two different types of field effect transistors: n-type using electrons as charge carriers and p-type using holes as charge carriers. The two transistors generally do not convert to each other. The new transistors that Dresden University of Technology and Deqimenda Co., Ltd. have jointly developed can be programmed by electrical signals, allowing them to re-assemble themselves and walk between the n-type and p-type transistors.
The new transistor consists of a single metal-semiconductor-metal structure nanowire embedded in a silica shell. Electrons or holes emanating from one end of the nanowire reach the other end of the nanowire through two gates. These two gates control the flow of electrons or holes in different ways: one gate controls the type of transistor by choosing to use electrons or holes; the other gate controls electrons or holes by tuning the conductivity of the nanowires.
Traditional transistors determine whether they are p-type or n-type by doping different elements during the manufacturing process. The new transistors do not need to be doped with any element during the manufacturing process. The type of the transistor can be reconfigured by applying an external voltage to a gate. . The applied voltage causes the Schottky junction near the gate to prevent electrons or holes from flowing through the device. If electrons are blocked and holes can flow, then the transistor is p-type, and vice versa is n-type.
The researchers explained that the key to making this reconfiguration work is to tune the electron flow through the Schottky junction (one per gate). Simulations show that the nanowire geometry plays a key role in this regard.
Although the study is still in its infancy, new transistors have demonstrated excellent electrical characteristics. For example, compared with traditional nanowire field-effect transistors, the on/off ratio is higher and leakage is less. Walter Weber, the leader of the research, said: "In addition to using artificial nanowires, this transistor can be manufactured using advanced silicon semiconductor manufacturing technology. Self-aligned technology can also be used to greatly increase the operating frequency and speed. a€?
Next, scientists plan to improve the performance of the new transistor by changing the composition of the material and create the circuit that runs on it. They stated that the biggest challenge is how to integrate additional gate signals when combining them with other transistors.
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